29/01/24 13:43

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The process of protein synthesis involves several key steps:

Transcription: In eukaryotic cells, the process begins in the nucleus with the transcription of a specific segment of DNA into mRNA. This mRNA carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it will be translated into a protein.

mRNA Processing: In eukaryotic cells, the newly synthesized mRNA undergoes processing
in the nucleus, including the addition of a protective cap and a poly-A tail, as well as the removal of non-coding regions called introns. These modifications help stabilize the mRNA and facilitate its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

Translation: The mRNA then moves to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where the process of translation takes place. Translation involves the decoding of the mRNA sequence by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome. The ribosome reads the mRNA sequence and assembles the amino acids in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which will fold into a functional protein.

Protein Folding and Modifications: After translation, the newly synthesized polypeptide chain undergoes folding into its three-dimensional structure. This folding process is crucial for the protein to acquire its functional conformation. Additionally, proteins may undergo various post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or acetylation, which can further modulate their structure and function.

While there has been speculation about the possibility of nuclear translation, it is important to note that the consensus is that the cytoplasm is the primary site for protein synthesis. The nucleus primarily serves as the site for transcription and processing of mRNA, which then moves to the cytoplasm for translation into proteins.

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Modifié 1 fois. Dernière modification le 29/01/24 13:45 par Gatecom1801.


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